The Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease or AIED is an autoimmune disease which occurs when the body immune system attacks the cells of the inner ear and mistaken for a type of virus, thus causing inflammation. In this condition the hearing capability of the person is affected and this is a very rare condition. Earlier it was stated that the ear cannot be attacked by the immune system but the inner ear responds to the sensitized cells which enters the cochlea from the circulatory system causing hearing issue. Proper tests need to be conducted for confirming the disease the main thing depends on the potential response of a person to drug given so the diagnosis is made properly.
AIED is caused by either the immune cells or the antibodies which damages the inner ear. AIED is related to many autoimmune disorders like, usage of opiate-based painkillers like OxyContin which can cause damage to the inner year and result in hearing loss. The AIED is also related to Cross-reactions, bystander damage and genetic factors. Damage progression and functional loss accelerate during this condition.
Signs and Symptoms
Hearing loss is the main inner ear effect because of autoimmune issues. Sometimes, the vestibular system is also attacked. Speed of vestibular loss, the degree or level of the loss, one side or both sides affected, thus the symptoms of the autoimmune disorder are similar to that of vestibular disorders. The symptoms are most clearly found in women rather than in men and children. The disorder differs from different vestibular disorders as the treatment is successful if given early in a great way.
An autoimmune reaction creates debris. The debris is transported from certain places and accumulated by the circulation. This debris causes issues in the ear. Diagnosing the autoimmune inner ear disease is difficult to diagnose and a physician needs to be well trained in diagnosing this condition. Sometimes, the vestibular system is also attacked of the ear and the physician must be aware of that as well. There are gaps in the treatment and diagnosis of this disease. The diagnosis is established when a proper response is given to the drug. It is also difficult to diagnose the condition with the help of tests. Tests like 68-kD antigen have to be performed which are very uncommon and expensive. Early diagnosis can help in reversing the damage and halting the progress of this disease.
Drugs to reduce the immune function are given to the patients. The initial treatment given to patients for Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease is prednisone, anti-transplant rejection drugs, methotrexate and steroids where the methotrexate is a chemical agent. Patients are also given hearing aids, which is quite beneficial to them. A cochlear implant is done if the hearing loss is not able to be treated and a person is showing no response to the drugs.
Side effects of the medicines should be watched properly so the treatment is safe and results are good. If the diagnosis is done on time, the treatment can be more beneficial.
There are many types of medicines that may be used in specific types of autoimmune diseases. While some treatments aim at relieving symptoms like pain and inflammation, others target the disease process. Unfortunately, adding to extreme hazards and medical anxiety, some autoimmune diseases like thyroiditis and diabetes make the manufacture of vital components in the form of hormones conducive to the human body difficult. Relaxingly enough, some agents introduced by the developed medical ventures, like, anti-TNF medications are used in autoimmune arthritis and psoriasis. Apart from medications, there are several lifestyle changes that may be adopted along with the treatment of autoimmune diseases. These include eating a healthy and balanced diet, getting regular physical activity, maintaining a healthy body weight, getting adequate rest, reducing stress, etc.