Some of the most important environmental variables observed through health posts and space observations by NASA include precipitation, vegetation index and temperature. It was determined in a study that vegetation index is the greatest predictor simply due to irrigation methods and areas of sitting water. Surface temperature was found to be the second strongest predicting variable. Finally, precipitation was not a considerable predictor as it does not contribute to an increase in larval population.
Since much of Afghanistan is arid or semi-arid climate, agriculture greatly depends on irrigation. The Anopheles mosquito breeds on all bodies of water so melting of snow during the spring season and rainfall in the summer create opportunities for additional larval habitats to form and increase the number of mosquitos carrying the malaria parasite.
The primary space observation used satellite measured environmental parameters which produced reasonable results and accuracy. The World Health Organization is currently developing the Malaria Control and Elimination Plan which will create an economical surveillance system that acts as an early warning and detection system based on environmental variable measurements.
The most common current method of prevention in Afghanistan is insecticide-treated bed nets. This has slowly been adopted due to massive campaigns, subsidized sales and extensive public awareness of their functional importance. In some regions of the country, approximately 75 percent of citizens have purchased and utilize their bed nets. Two extremes are being used to fight the transmission of malaria in Afghanistan: traditional techniques and advanced technology. Bed nets working in conjunction with advanced satellite measurements for prediction should ensure the safety of the inhabitants of Afghanistan.